GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks of clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2018;392:1923–94.
World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd_report2010/en/
Go AS. Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Borden WB, et al, and the American Heart Association statistics committee and stroke statistics subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013;127:e6–245.
Shin J, Park JB, Kim KI, Kim JH, Yang DH, Pyun WB, et al. 2013 Korean Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of hypertension: part I-epidemiology and diagnosis of hypertension. Clin Hypertens. 2015;21:1.
Wilkins JT, Ning H, Berry J, Zhao L, Dyer AR, Lloyd-Jones DM. Lifetime risk and years lived free of total cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2012;308:1795–801.
Chow CK, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, Islam S, Gupta R, Avezum A, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in rural and urban communities in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. JAMA. 2013;310:959–68.
Kim H, Cho M. Korea hypertension fact sheet. Clin Hypertens. 2018;24:13.
Lee H, Park S, Kim H. Temporal and geospatial trends of hypertension management in Korea: a nationwide study 2002-2016. Korean Circ J. 2019;49(6):e36.
Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R. Prospective studies collaboration. Prospective studies C. age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;350:1903–13.
Rapsomaniki E, Timmis A, George J, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Shah AD, Denaxas S, et al. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014;383:1899–911.
Bohm M, Schumacher H, Teo KK, Lonn EM, Mahfoud F, Mann JFE, et al. Achieved blood pressure and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: results from ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials. Lancet. 2017;389:2226–37.
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the global burden of Disease study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2224–60.
Williams B, Lindholm LH, Sever P. Systolic pressure is all that matters. Lancet. 2008;371:2219–21.
Lindenstrom E, Boysen G, Nyboe J. Influence of systolic and diastolic blood pressure on stroke risk: a prospective observational study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142(12):1279–90.
Benetos A, Thomas F, Bean K, Gaultier S, Smulyan H, Guize L. Prognostic value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in treated hypertensive men. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:577–81.
Choi YJ, Kim SH, Kang SH, Yoon CH, Lee HY, Youn TJ, et al. Reconsidering the cut-off diastolic blood pressure for predicting cardiovascular events: a nationwide population-based study from Korea. Eur Heart J. 2018;40:724–31.
Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, CaseyJR DE, Collins KJ, Himmelfarb CD, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. Hypertension. 2018;71:e13–e115.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, et al. Seventh report of the joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:1206–52.
Lee HY, Shin JH, Kim GH, Park SH, Ihm SH, Kim HC, et al. 2018 Korean Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of hypertension: part II-diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Clin Hypertens. 2019;25:20.
Kweon S, Kim Y, Jang M, Kim Y, Kim K, Choi S, et al. Data resource profile: The Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES). Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43:69–77.
Kim Y. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES): current status and challenges. Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014002.
Oh J, Yang J, Kim B, Kang J. Validity and reliability of Korean version of international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) short form. J Korean Acad Fam Med. 2007;28:532–41.
Kim MK, Ko SH, Kim BY, Kang ES, Noh JH, Kim SK, et al. 2019 clinical practice guidelines for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):398–406.
Rhee EJ, Kim HC, Kim JH, Lee EY, Kim BJ, Kim EM, et al. 2018 guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia. Korean J Intern Med. 2019;34:723–71.
Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF 3rd, Feldman HI, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(9):604–12.
Disease K. Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Hepatitis C Work Group: KDIGO 2018 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Prevention, Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hepatitis C in Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2018;8(3):91–165.
Goff DC Jr, Lloyd-Jones DM, Bennett G, Coady S, D’Agostino RB, Gibbons R, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:2935–59.
Jung KJ, Jang YS, Oh DJ, Oh BH, Lee SH, Park SW, et al. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equations compared to a Korean risk prediction model for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2015;242(1):367–75.
Hense HW, Maziak W, Heidrich J. Why is blood pressure control unsatisfactory—or is it? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17:1547–50.
Kim NR, Kim HC. Prevalence and trends of isolated systolic hypertension among Korean adults: the Korea National Health and nutrition examination survey, 1998-2012. Korean Circ J. 2015;45(6):492–9.
Cho SMJ, Lee H, Pyun WB, Kim HC. Differential control rate of systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Korean adults with hypertension: the sixth Korean National Health and nutrition examination survey, 2013-2015 (KNHANES VI). Korean Circ J. 2019;49:e87.
Qi SF, Zhang B, Wang HJ, Yan J, Mi YJ, Liu DW, et al. Prevalence of hypertension subtypes in 2011 and the trends from 1991-2011 among Chinese adults. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2016;70(5):444–51.
Muntner P, Carey RM, Gidding S, Jones DW, Taler SJ, Wright JT Jr, et al. Potential US population impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guideline. Circulation. 2018;137:109–18.
The WJ, Research SPRINT. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. Vnitr Lek. 2016;62(1):44–7.
Lonn EM, Bosch J, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Zhu J, Liu L, Pais P, et al. Blood-pressure lowering in intermediate-risk persons without cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:2009–20.
The ACCORD Study Group. Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1575–85.
Ettehad D, Emdin CA, Kiran A, Anderson SG, Callender T, Emberson J, et al. Blood pressure lowering for prevention of cardiovascular disease and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2016;387:957–67.
Brunstrom M, Carlberg B, Lindholm LH. Perspective from Sweden on the global impact of the 2017 American College of Cardology/American Heart Association hypertension guidelines. Circulation. 2018;137:886–8.
Strandberg TE, Salomaa VV, Vanhanen HT, Pitkala K, Miettinen TA. Isolated diastolic hypertension, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure as predictors of mortality during a follow-up of up to 32 years. J Hypertens. 2002;20:399–404.
Benavente OR, White CL, Pearce L, Pergola P, Roldan A, Benavente M-F, et al. The secondary prevention of small subcortical strokes (SPS3) study. Int J Stroke. 2011;6:164–75.
Allen NB, Siddique J, Wilkins J, Shay C, Lewis CE, Goff DC, et al. Blood pressure trajectories in early adulthood and subclinical atherosclerosis in middle age. JAMA. 2014;311(5):490–7.
Zhang Y, Vittinghoff E, Pletcher MJ, Allen NB, Al Hazzouri AZ, Yaffe K, et al. Associations of blood pressure and cholesterol levels during young adulthood with later cardiovascular events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;74(3):330–41.
Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, Rosei EA, Azizi M, Burnier M, et al. 2018 ESC/ESH guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2018;369(33):3021–104.
Lee H, Park JH, Floyd JS, Park S, Kim HC. Combined effect of income and medication adherence on mortality in newly treated hypertension: nationwide study of 16 million person-years. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8:e013148.
Mancia G, Bombelli M, Seravalle G, Grassi G. Diagnosis and management of patients with white-coat and masked hypertension. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011;8(12):686–93.