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Table 3 Characteristics of study participants by stage 1 hypertension subtype according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline based on 2007–2017 KNHANES (n = 11,336)

From: Differences in prevalence of hypertension subtypes according to the 2018 Korean Society of Hypertension and 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2017 (KNHANES IV-VII)

 Stage 1 hypertension by the 2017 ACC/AHA Guideline
Stage 1 IDH;
SBP <130 mmHg and DBP ≥80 mmHg
Stage 1 ISH;
SBP ≥130 mmHg and DBP <80 mmHg
Stage 1 SDH;
SBP ≥130 mmHg and DBP ≥80 mmHg
p-value
(n = 8067)(n = 1289)(n = 1980)
% Study population76.2 (75.2–77.2)8.2 (7.6–8.8)15.6 (14.8–16.4) 
Male sex67.5 (66.3–68.6)44.1 (40.7–47.4)58.6 (56.0–61.2)<0.0001
Age group, yrs   <0.0001
 20–2917.4 (16.3–18.6)6.9 (4.6–9.2)11.1 (9.0–13.2) 
 30–3925.3 (24.0–26.5)3.6 (2.2–5.1)12.6 (10.6–14.5) 
 40–4929.1 (27.9–30.3)7.1 (5.0–9.1)20.6 (18.3–22.8) 
 50–5920.9 (19.8–21.9)19.4 (16.5–22.3)31.1 (28.6–33.5) 
 60–695.9 (5.4–6.3)27.3 (24.5–30.0)17.2 (15.4–19.0) 
 70–791.3 (1.1–1.6)28.4 (25.5–31.2)6.6 (5.5–7.6) 
 80+0.2 (0.1–0.2)7.3 (5.7–8.9)0.9 (0.5–1.3) 
Smoking status<0.0001
 Non-smoker42.9 (41.6–44.2)59.0 (55.5–62.5)50.7 (48.0–53.4) 
 Previous smoker17.9 (16.8–18.9)17.4 (14.9–20.0)18.4 (16.2–20.5) 
 Current smoker39.3 (37.9–40.6)23.6 (20.5–26.6)30.9 (28.5–33.4) 
Alcohol intake<0.0001
 Non-drinker6.2 (5.6–6.8)21.3 (18.7–23.8)11.4 (9.8–12.9) 
 Former drinker25.2 (24.0–26.3)35.1 (31.8–38.4)27.1 (24.8–29.4) 
 Current drinker68.6 (67.4–69.8)43.6 (40.2–47.0)61.6 (58.9–64.2) 
Regular exercise<0.0001
 Yes30.4 (29.0–31.8)25.8 (22.3–29.3)30.4 (27.8–33.0) 
 No69.6 (68.2–71.0)74.2 (70.7–77.7)69.6 (67.0–72.2) 
BMI, kg/m224.4 (24.3–24.5)23.8 (23.5–24.0)24.8 (24.6–25.0)<0.0001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL195.7 (194.7–196.6)192.4 (190.0–194.8)199.6 (197.7–201.6)<0.0001
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL49.2 (48.9–49.5)46.8 (48.0–49.5)49.2 (48.5–49.9)<0.0001
Triglyceride, mg/dL158.9 (154.6–163.2)136.2 (129.1–143.3)165.3 (158.3–172.4)<0.0001
Lipid-lowering agent intake2.2 (1.8–2.5)7.5 (5.9–9.2)3.7 (2.8–4.5)<0.0001
Fasting glucose, mg/dL98.0 (97.4–98.6)104.7 (102.9–106.5)101.3 (100.1–102.5)<0.0001
GFR, ml/min/1.73 m297.6 (97.2–98.1)87.9 (86.7–89.0)94.2 (93.4–95.0)<0.0001
Diabetes mellitus6.4 (5.7–7.0)18.2 (15.5–20.8)9.2 (7.7–10.7)<0.0001
Chronic Kidney Disease0.5 (0.4–0.6)5.1 (3.7–6.4)1.3 (0.8–1.8)<0.0001
Mean 10-yr predicted CVD risk*
 High risk,*%, PCE2.1 (1.8–2.4)40.1 (36.7–43.5)10.6 (9.3–12.0)<0.0001
 High risk, *%, KRPM2.7 (2.3–3.0)24.3 (21.6–27.0)9.5 (8.1–10.9)<0.0001
History of CVD3.1 (2.6–3.6)11.2 (9.0–13.4)5.4 (4.1–6.7)<0.0001
  1. Values are presented as % or mean (95% confidence interval)
  2. P-values are derived from analysis of variance (ANOVA) for multiple comparison across the three subtype groups
  3. Abbreviations: ACC/AHA American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, BMI Body mass index, CI Confidence interval, CKD Chronic kidney disease, CVD Cardiovascular disease, GFR Glomerular filtration rate, HDL High-density lipoprotein, IDH Isolated diastolic hypertension, ISH Isolated systolic hypertension, KRPM Korean Risk Prediction Model, KSH Korean Society of Hypertension, PCE Pooled Cohort Equation, SDH Systolic diastolic hypertension
  4. *10-yr risk was calculated among adults without a history of CVD
  5. *High risk defined as a 10-year predicted cardiovascular disease risk ≥10% or history of CVD