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Table 2 Socio-demographic and metabolic characteristics of all respondents according to Hypertension status stratified by sex of respondents in the NHANNES Data

From: Passive smoking exposure and the risk of hypertension among non-smoking adults: the 2015–2016 NHANES data

Characteristics Women (N = 1961) Men (n = 1006)
Hypertension Status Hypertension Status
Combined No Yes P Combined No Yes P
Age (years) 48.0 ± 18.1 41.2 ± 15.6 61.7 ± 14.6 < 0.0001 44.0 ± 17.4 38.6 ± 15.7 55.7 ± 14.8 < 0.0001
  < 60 years 1386(72.2) 1089(81.1) 297(18.9) < 0.0001 827(79.0) 619(77.1) 208(22.9)  < 0.0001
  ≥ 60 years 575(27.8) 152(29.2) 423(70.8) 279(21.0) 88(36.2) 191(63.8)  
Race
White only 488(57.8) 301(65.9) 187(34.1) < 0.0001 276(56.0) 178(68.7) 98(31.3) < 0.0001
Hispanics only 725(18.4) 446(70.4) 279(29.6) 342(19.2) 227(74.4) 115(25.6)
Black only 385(12.4) 229(62.0) 156(38.0) 248(12.6) 131(58.0) 117(42.0)
 Others 363(11.4) 265(69.9) 98(30.1) 240(12.2) 171(69.4) 69(30.6)
Education
  < High School 1861(97.1) 1145(65.8) 716(34.2) < 0.0001 1025(95.7) 634(67.4) 391(32.6) < 0.0001
  ≥ High School 98(2.9) 94(97.1) 04(2.9) 80(4.3) 72(93.3) 08(6.7)
Employed
No 888(41.1) 450(51.6) 438(48.4) < 0.0001 367(26.4) 196(61.2) 171(38.8) < 0.0001
Yes 1068(58.9) 787(77.2) 281(22.8) 736(73.6) 508(70.9) 228(29.1)
Incomea
  ≤ $24,999 520(18.9) 269(52.9) 251(47.1) < 0.0001 220(13.7) 133(69.2) 87(30.8) < 0.0001
  > $24,999 1278(81.1) 871(70.5) 408(29.5) 794(86.3) 519(68.9) 275(31.1)
Marital Status
Never married 316(16.1) 243(83.1) 73(16.9) < 0.0001 204(20.9) 165(82.9) 39(17.1) < 0.0001
Marriedb 1089(62.7) 715(68.9) 374(31.1) 716(71.8) 435(66.3) 281(33.7)
Widowedc 456(21.3) 187(43.4) 269(56.6) 107(7.4) 34(33.8) 73(66.2)
Alcohol use
No 609(27.4) 349(62.5) 260(37.5) < 0.0001 238(21.7) 163(72.9) 75(27.1) < 0.0001
Yes 1036(72.6) 653(66.0) 383(34.0) 737(78.3) 451(67.9) 286(32.6)
BMI (kg/m2) 29.3 ± 7.5 28.0 ± 6.8 31.9 ± 8.2 < 0.0001 28.2 ± 6.8 27.0 ± 5.5 30.8 ± 6.6 < 0.0001
 Normal Weight 559(33.1) 435(79.9) 124(20.1) < 0.0001 323(30.6) 256(84.9) 67(15.1) < 0.0001
Overweight 521(28.5) 328(66.8) 193(33.2) 323(38.2) 253(66.9) 140(33.1)
 Obese 770(38.4) 402(55.5) 368(44.5) 334(31.3) 157(54.4) 177(45.6)
Hypertension Awareness
No 1316(69.8) 1241(95.5) 75(4.5) < 0.0001 790(75.9) 707(90.4) 83(9.6) < 0.0001
Yes 645(30.2) 00(0.0) 645(100.0) 315(24.1) 00(0.0) 315(100.0)
SBP (mmHg) 121.4 ± 17.9 114.0 ± 11.2 135.8 ± 19.9 < 0.0001 124.1 ± 15.7 117.8 ± 9.5 137.7 ± 17.6 < 0.0001
DBP (mmHg) 68.7 ± 10.6 67.9 ± 8.9 70.2 ± 13.2 < 0.0001 71.7 ± 11.6 70.0 ± 9.2 75.4 ± 15.0 < 0.0001
PSE
No 1471(76.8) 928(67.1) 543(32.9) < 0.0001 794(75.5) 484(67.3) 310(32.7) < 0.0001
Yes 484(23.2) 310(65.5) 174(34.5) 311(24.5) 222(72.5) 89(27.5)
  1. a - annual household income, b - married/living with partner, c - widowed/divorced/separated
  2. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation and compared using the t-test
  3. Categorical variables are presented as n(%) and compared using the x2 test