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Table 1 Demographic and disease-related characteristics of Korean adults with and without hypertension

From: Factors associated with dietary adherence to the guidelines for prevention and treatment of hypertension among Korean adults with and without hypertension

 Total (n = 497)Normotensives (n = 359)Hypertensives (n = 138)P-value
Sex (women)346 (69.6)254 (70.8)92 (66.7)0.44
Age (y)56.9 ± 8.555.5 ± 8.860.7 ± 6.2< 0.01
Education (college or higher)195 (39.3)155 (43.3)40 (29.0)< 0.01
Subjective economic status (low)81 (16.3)52 (14.5)29 (21.0)0.10
Cardiometabolic disease status
 Obesitya155 (31.2)88 (24.5)67 (48.6)< 0.01
 Diabetes mellitusb46 (9.3)23 (6.4)23 (16.7)< 0.01
 Dyslipidemiac237 (47.7)143 (39.8)94 (68.1)< 0.01
Family history of hypertension229 (46.1)150 (41.8)79 (57.3)< 0.01
Hypertension duration (years)8.4 ± 6.6
Antihypertensive drug treatment (yes)105 (93.8)
Frequency of BP measurement during the previous 1 year
  ≤ 4 times267 (53.7)236 (65.7)31 (22.5)< 0.01
 5–12 times161 (32.4)87 (24.2)74 (53.6) 
  > 12 times69 (13.9)36 (10.0)33 (23.9) 
Awareness of their own BP value (yes)359 (72.2)243 (67.7)116 (84.1)< 0.01
Lifestyle behaviors113 (22.7)86 (24.0)27 (19.6)0.35
Current non-smoking454 (91.4)328 (91.4)126 (91.3)1.00
Current non-drinking191 (38.4)142 (39.6)49 (35.5)0.47
Regular walking (≥60 min/day)328 (66.0)241 (67.1)87 (63.0)0.45
Dietary education over the past 1 year (yes)72 (14.5)58 (16.4)13 (9.4)0.07
  1. Abbreviations: BP blood pressure
  2. Values are presented as N (%) or mean ± SD
  3. aObesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m2
  4. bDiabetes was defined as either a fasting glucose level ≥ 126 mg/dL or when participants self-reported anti-diabetic treatment, such as taking a hypoglycemic agent or insulin
  5. cDyslipidemia was defined if any one of hypercholesterolemia (serum cholesterol level ≥ 240 mg/dL or self-reported lipid-lowering drug use), hypertriglyceridemia (serum triacylglycerol level ≥ 200 mg/dL or self-reported lipid-lowering drug use), or low HDL-cholesterol (HDL cholesterol level < 40 mg/dL in men and < 50 mg/dL in women, respectively) is present