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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of four groups stratified according to the change in fatty liver status

From: Change in fatty liver status and 5-year risk of incident metabolic syndrome: a retrospective cohort study

Variables No fatty liver—no fatty liver (reference group) (n = 1344) Fatty liver—no fatty liver (resolved fatty liver) (n = 112) No fatty liver—fatty liver (incident fatty liver) (n = 251) Fatty liver—fatty liver (persisting fatty liver) (n = 382) P value P for trend
Males (n, %) 822 (61.2 %) 101 (90.2 %) 215 (85.7 %) 361 (94.5 %) <0.001  
Age 40.9 ± 6.5 41.9 ± 6.7 41.1 ± 5.6 41.5 ± 5.7 0.210  
Glucose (mmol/L) 4.91 ± 0.44 5.05 ± 0.45 5.00 ± 0.44 5.09 ± 0.45 <0.001 0.002
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.05 [0.79, 1.42] 1.63 [1.28, 2.09] 1.62 [1.13, 2.06] 1.79 [1.37, 2.42] <0.001 <0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.54 ± 0.31 1.38 ± 0.25 1.42 ± 0.28 1.36 ± 0.23 <0.001 <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 76.8 ± 8.3 86.2 ± 5.6 82.6 ± 5.9 87.6 ± 5.3 <0.001 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.6 ± 2.6 25.2 ± 2.2 24.1 ± 2.2 25.7 ± 2.0 <0.001 <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 109.6 ± 10.1 114.2 ± 8.0 112.4 ± 9.2 114.2 ± 7.8 <0.001 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 70.5 ± 8.0 73.5 ± 6.4 72.0 ± 7.4 74.0 ± 6.3 <0.001 <0.001
Alcohol 10.45 ± 14.20 11.13 ± 12.44 13.67 ± 16.29 12.27 ± 14.90 0.005 0.367
Smoking status      <0.001 <0.001
 Never smoker 765 (56.9 %) 37 (33.0 %) 96 (38.2 %) 113 (29.6 %)   
 Current smoker 579 (43.1 %) 75 (67.0 %) 155 (61.8 %) 269 (70.4 %)   
Exercise ≥1/week 555 (41.3 %) 41 (36.6 %) 90 (35.9 %) 125 (32.7 %) 0.014 <0.001
Incident diabetes development 1 (0.1 %) 2 (1.8 %) 3 (1.2 %) 6 (1.6 %) 0.001 <0.001
  1. Data are (n, %) or mean ± SD or median [IQR]. P value was calculated by the ANOVA and independent t test for continuous variables, and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests for non-normally distributed variables
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure