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Table 1 Clinical situations when the echocardiography is recommended in the evaluation and treatment of arterial hypertension

From: Role of echocardiography in clinical hypertension

Clinical situations Signs
Heart failure is suspected -Symptoms: exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, generalized edema, etc.
-Abnormal physical examination: cardiac murmurs, pretibial pitting edema, etc.
-Abnormal ECG results: left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial enlargement, left bundle branch block, pathologic Q waves, poor R progression, atrial fibrillation etc.
-Abnormal chest X-ray findings: cardiomegaly, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, etc.
Structural heart disease is suspected -Symptoms: exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, etc.
-Abnormal physical examination: cardiac murmurs, pretibial pitting edema, etc.
-Abnormal ECG results: left ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial enlargement, right atrial enlargement, etc.
-Abnormal chest X-ray findings: cardiomegaly, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, etc.
Ischemic heart disease is suspected -Symptoms: typical chest pain, exertional dyspnea, etc.
-Abnormal ECG results: significant ST changes, pathologic Q wave, etc.
Refining cardiovascular risk