Skip to main content

Table 3 Summary of findings for effects of carbohydrate-restricted diet in adults with hypertension

From: Effect of carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting on obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension management: consensus statement of the Korean Society for the Study of obesity, Korean Diabetes Association, and Korean Society of Hypertension

Outcome Illustrative comparative effecta (95% CI) No. of participants Quality of the evidence
(GRADE)
Assumed effect (control) Corresponding effect
mLCDb     
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) −4.55 −3.25 (−7.28 to 0.77) 195 (2 studies)
Very Low
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) −4.00 −1.80 (− 4.56 to 0.96) 93 (1 study)
Very Low
 Triglyceride, mg/dL (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) −15.48 −35.58 (−52.84 to − 18.33) 195 (2 studies)
Very Low
 LDL-C, mg/dL (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) −0.30 0.00 (−9.55 to 9.55) 93 (1 study)
Very Low
 HDL-C, mg/dL (follow-up: 36–52 weeks) 2.3 1.60 (−1.13 to 4.33) 93 (1 study)
Very Low
 Body weight, kg (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) −6.2 −1.81 (−3.93 to 0.30) 195 (2 studies)
Very Low
 FMD, % (follow-up: 36–52 weeks) −0.6 0.30 (− 0.58 to 1.18) 93 (1 study)
Very Low
VLCDc     
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) −6.3 −1.34 (−5.20 to 2.51) 232 (2 studies)
Very Low
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) −4.0 2.01 (−0.61 to 4.63) 232 (2 studies)
Very Low
 Triglyceride, mg/dL (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) −19.95 −10.17 (−43.00 to 22.67) 232 (2 studies)
Very Low
 LDL-C, mg/dL (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) −6.75 8.91 (−9.27 to 27.08) 232 (2 studies)
Very Low
 HDL-C, mg/dL (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) 2.75 1.85 (−5.98 to 9.69) 232 (2 studies)
Very Low
 Body weight, kg (follow-up: 8–24 weeks) −6.05 −1.16 (−2.65 to 0.34) 232 (2 studies)
Very Low
 FMD, % (follow-up: 36–52 weeks) −0.3 −1.80 (−3.48, − 0.12) 49 (1 study)
Very Low
  1. aThe basis for the assumed effect is the mean change of outcomes compared to baseline in the control group across studies, and the corresponding effect (and its 95% CI) is based on the assumed effect in the comparison group
  2. bmLCD for hypertension: Patient or population (patients with hypertension), Intervention (mLCD)
  3. cVLCD for hypertension: Patient or population (patients with hypertension), Intervention (VLCD)
  4. CI confidence interval, GRADE Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation, mLCD moderately-low carbohydrate or low carbohydrate diet, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, FMD flow-mediated dilatation, VLCD very-low carbohydrate diet
  5. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence: High quality (Further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect); Moderate quality (Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate); Low quality (Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate); Very low quality (We are very uncertain about the estimate).