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Table 5 Adjusted Association of Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, and Pulse Pressure with Height derived through Linear Regression among the untreated individuals, NHANES 2007–18#

From: Association between height and hypertension among US adults: analyses of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–18

Variables## SBP DBP PP
aβ (95% CI) aβ (95% CI) aβ (95% CI)
Height Category (in cm)
 Q1 (135.3–159.2) Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 (159.3–166.2) -0.7 (− 1.59,0.19) 0.73* (0.14,1.31) -1.43*** (−2.23,-0.63)
 Q3 (166.3–173.6) −0.87 (− 1.87,0.13) 1.29*** (0.58,2.01) − 2.16*** (−3.08,-1.23)
 Q4 (173.7–204.5) − 0.51 (− 1.61,0.60) 1.92*** (1.06,2.77) − 2.43*** (− 3.54,-1.32)
Age (in year)
 20–39 Ref Ref Ref
 40–59 5.42*** (4.73,6.12) 4.69*** (4.20,5.17) 0.74** (0.22,1.26)
 ≥60 14.24*** (13.23,15.24) −0.59 (−1.37,0.18) 14.75*** (13.82,15.67)
Gender
 Male Ref Ref Ref
 Female −5.96*** (−6.67,-5.26) −2.11*** (−2.71,-1.52) −3.88*** (−4.53,-3.23)
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White Ref Ref Ref
 Non-Hispanic Black 4.06*** (3.17,4.96) 0.77* (0.01,1.52) 3.31*** (2.24,4.37)
 Mexican-American −0.46 (− 1.35,0.43) − 0.61 (− 1.49,0.28) 0.16 (− 0.69,1.01)
 Other races/ethnicities −0.73* (− 1.44,-0.01) −0.1 (− 0.85,0.66) −0.63(− 1.48,0.22)
Family income
 Low Ref Ref Ref
 Middle 0.19 (−0.51,0.89) −0.04 (− 0.59,0.51) 0.23 (− 0.44,0.90)
 High 0.16 (− 0.58,0.90) 0.09 (− 0.57,0.74) 0.09 (− 0.60,0.79)
Education level
 Below High School Ref Ref Ref
 High School −0.4 (−1.12,0.32) 0.76** (0.22,1.30) −1.13*** (− 1.72,-0.55)
 College Graduate or Above −2.67*** (−3.66,-1.67) 0.41 (− 0.32,1.15) −3.06*** (− 3.88,-2.24)
Cholesterol level (in mg/dl)
 No high cholesterol (< 200) Ref Ref Ref
 Borderline elevated (200–239) 2.20*** (1.50,2.91) 2.47*** (1.98,2.96) −0.26 (− 0.96,0.45)
 High cholesterol (≥240) 1.77*** (0.95,2.59) 1.83*** (1.35,2.32) −0.09(− 0.79,0.60)
High-density lipoprotein (in mg/dl)
 Normal Ref Ref Ref
 Low 1.19*** (0.58,1.80) 1.01*** (0.59,1.44) 0.18 (−0.35,0.71)
Chronic kidney disease
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 5.94*** (4.63,7.24) 1.68*** (0.89,2.47) 4.24*** (3.28,5.20)
Diabetes mellitus status
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.09* (0.00,2.18) −0.98* (−1.78,-0.18) 2.07*** (1.06,3.07)
Smoker
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.35 (−0.27,0.96) −0.89** (−1.46,-0.31) 1.24*** (0.69,1.80)
Leisure time physical activity (in minutes)
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Some (< 150 min) − 0.16 (− 0.91,0.58) 0.05 (− 0.60,0.71) −0.21 (− 0.91,0.49)
 ≥150 min −0.90** (− 1.45,-0.35) −0.52* (− 1.04,-0.01) −0.38 (− 0.94,0.19)
Survey Period
 2007–10 Ref Ref Ref
 2011–14 0.46 (−0.39,1.32) 0.48 (−0.52,1.48) 0.01 (−1.02,1.05)
 2015–18 1.96*** (1.13,2.79) 1.24* (0.13,2.35) 0.74 (−0.29,1.77)
  1. Adjusted Beta Co-efficient, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, PP Pulse Pressure, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure
  2. #Individuals who were not taking any antihypertensive drugs were included in the analyses
  3. ##Adjusted for all variables in the column, variables significant in bivariate analyses were included in multivariable mode
  4. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001