Skip to main content

Table 5 Association between LDL-C and hypertension in observational analysis and Mendelian randomization analysis

From: Inference of a causal relation between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hypertension using mendelian randomization analysis

  Observational analysis Mendelian randomization Analysis
  Counted GRS Weighted GRS
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Men
 Model 1
  Optimal 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  Near optimal 0.84 (0.75–0.95) 1.15 (0.97–1.37) 1.16 (0.97–1.37)
  High 0.90 (0.79–1.01) 1.64 (1.25–2.16) 1.65 (1.26–2.17)
 Model 2
  Optimal 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  Near optimal 0.91 (0.79–1.04) 1.07 (0.90–1.26) 1.07 (0.90–1.27)
  High 1.02 (0.89–1.17) 1.40 (1.07–1.83) 1.41 (1.08–1.84)
 Model 3
  Optimal 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  Near optimal 0.92 (0.80–1.05) 1.07 (0.90–1.27) 1.08 (0.91–1.27)
  High 1.03 (0.90–1.18) 1.41 (1.08–1.84) 1.42 (1.09–1.85)
Women
 Model 1
  Optimal 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  Near optimal 0.89 (0.79–0.99) 1.18 (1.03–1.35) 1.18 (1.03–1.36)
  High 0.89 (0.80–0.99) 1.83 (1.51–2.23) 1.83 (1.50–2.23)
 Model 2
  Optimal 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  Near optimal 0.90 (0.79–1.02) 1.18 (1.03–1.35) 1.18 (1.03–1.36)
  High 0.92 (0.81–1.04) 1.83 (1.51–2.23) 1.83 (1.50–2.23)
 Model 3
  Optimal 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  Near optimal 0.90 (0.79–1.02) 1.18 (1.03–1.35) 1.18 (1.03–1.35)
  High 0.92 (0.81–1.03) 1.83 (1.50–2.23) 1.84 (1.51–2.24)
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age and body mass index
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + smoking and drinking status
  3. Model 3: Model 2 + salt intake
  4. LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GRS Genetic risk score, OR Odds ratio