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Table 1 Socio-demographic and metabolic characteristics of all respondents according to Hypertension status in the NHANNES Data

From: Passive smoking exposure and the risk of hypertension among non-smoking adults: the 2015–2016 NHANES data

Characteristics All (N = 3067) <  60 years (n = 2213) ≥60 years (n = 854)
Hypertension Status Hypertension Status Hypertension Status
Combined No Yes P Combined No Yes P Combined No Yes P
Sex
Women 1961(63.3) 1241(66.7) 720(33.3) < 0.0001 1386(61.2) 1089(81.1) 297(18.9) < 0.0001 575(69.5) 152(29.2) 423(70.8) < 0.0001
Men 1006(36.7) 707(68.5) 399(31.5) 827(38.8) 619(77.1) 208(22.9)   279(30.5) 88(36.2) 191(63.8)
Age (years) 46.5 ± 17.9 40.2 ± 15.7 59.6 ± 15.0 < 0.0001 38.3 ± 12.2 36.2 ± 11.8 46.3 ± 9.9 < 0.0001 70.9 ± 6.5 70.1 ± 6.2 71.3 ± 6.6 < 0.0001
  <  60 years 2213(74.7) 1708(79.6) 505(20.4) < 0.0001         
  ≥ 60 years 854(36.7) 240(31.3) 614(68.7)         
Race
White only 764(57.1) 479(66.9) 285(33.1) < 0.0001 451(51.6) 378(82.9) 73(17.1) < 0.0001 313(73.4) 101(33.6) 212(66.4) < 0.0001
Hispanics only 1067(18.7) 673(71.9) 394(28.1) 780(21.7) 605(79.6) 175(20.4) 287(9.8) 68(21.7) 219(78.3)
Black only 633(12.5) 360(60.5) 273(39.5) 496(14.0) 332(67.9) 164(32.1) 137(7.9) 28(21.6) 109(78.4)
 Others 603(11.7) 436(69.8) 167(30.2) 486(12.7) 393(78.7) 93(21.3) 117(8.9) 43(32.2) 74(67.8)
Education
  < High School 2886(96.6) 1779(66.4) 1107(33.6) < 0.0001 2035(95.4) 1539(78.8) 496(21.2) < 0.0001 851(99.9) 240(31.4) 611(68.6) < 0.0001
  ≥ High School 178(3.4) 166(95.3) 12(4.7) 175(4.6) 166(95.9) 09(4.1) 03(0.1) 00(0.0) 03(100.0)
Employed
No 1255(35.7) 646(54.2) 609(45.8) < 0.0001 622(23.6) 482(79.9) 140(20.1) < 0.0001 633(71.6) 164(67.1) 469(70.9) < 0.0001
Yes 1804(64.3) 1295(74.6) 509(25.4) 1585(76.4) 1221(79.4) 364(20.6) 219(28.4) 74(36.0) 145(64.0)
Incomea
  ≤ $24,999 740(17.0) 402(57.8) 338(42.2) < 0.0001 444(14.4) 335(78.6) 109(21.4) < 0.0001 296(25.0) 67(21.2) 229(78.8) < 0.0001
  > $24,999 2073(83.0) 1390(69.9) 638(30.1) 1604(85.6) 1245(79.7) 359(20.3) 469(75.0) 145(35.5) 324(64.5)
Marital Status
Never married 520(17.8) 408(83.0) 112(17.0) < 0.0001 472(22.5) 398(87.1) 74(12.9) < 0.0001 48(4.7) 10(27.8) 38(72.2) < 0.0001
Marriedb 1805(66.0) 1150(67.9) 655(32.1) 1343(68.8) 999(77.6) 344(22.4) 462(58.1) 151(35.6) 311(64.4)
Widowedc 563(16.2) 221(41.8) 342(58.2) 219(8.7) 142(67.0) 77(33.0) 344(37.2) 79(25.2) 265(74.8)
Alcohol use
No 847(25.2) 512(65.9) 335(34.1) < 0.0001 555(23.9) 438(81.9) 117(18.1) < 0.0001 292(28.9) 74(28.6) 218(71.4) < 0.0001
Yes 1773(74.8) 1104(66.5) 669(33.5) 1303(76.1) 978(78.1) 325(21.9) 470(71.1) 126(31.8) 344(68.2)
BMI (kg/m2) 28.9 ± 7.1 27.6 ± 6.4 31.5 ± 7.7 < 0.0001 28.7 ± 7.0 27.7 ± 6.5 32.5 ± 7.6 < 0.0001 29.5 ± 7.2 27.2 ± 5.3 30.5 ± 7.7  
 Normal Weight 882(32.2) 691(81.6) 191(18.4) < 0.0001 691(34.2) 618(92.0) 73(8.0) < 0.0001 191(26.3) 73(42.0) 118(58.0) < 0.0001
 Overweight 914(32.0) 581(66.9) 333(33.1) 631(31.1) 505(79.1) 126(20.9) 283(34.5) 76(34.2) 207(65.8)
 Obese 1104(35.8) 559(55.1) 545(44.9) 738(34.7) 494(67.7) 289(32.3) 321(39.2) 65(22.3) 256(77.7)
Hypertension Awareness
No 2106(72.0) 1984(93.5) 158(6.5) < 0.0001 1797(83.5) 1708(95.4) 89(4.6) < 0.0001 309(38.4) 240(81.7) 69(18.3) < 0.0001
Yes 960(28.0) 00(0.0) 960(100.0) 416(16.5) 00(0.0) 416(100.0) 544(61.6) 00(0.0) 544(100.0)
SBP (mmHg) 122.4 ± 17.2 115.4 ± 10.7 136.4 ± 19.1 < 0.0001 118.4 ± 14.4 114.7 ± 10.5 132.7 ± 17.9 < 0.0001 133.8 ± 19.4 120.9 ± 11.1 139.7 ± 19.5 < 0.0001
DBP (mmHg) 69.8 ± 11.1 68.7 ± 9.0 72.0 ± 14.1 < 0.0001 71.1 ± 9.9 69.2 ± 8.7 78.2 ± 11.0 < 0.0001 66.1 ± 13.2 64.8 ± 10.3 66.7 ± 14.4 < 0.0001
PSE
No 2265(76.3) 1412(67.1) 853(32.9) < 0.0001 1574(74.8) 1214(80.3) 360(19.7) < 0.0001 691(80.9) 198(31.2) 493(32.4) < 0.0001
Yes 795(23.7) 532(68.2) 263(31.8) 636(25.2) 491(77.4) 145(22.6) 159(19.1) 41(68.8) 118(67.6)
  1. a - annual household income, b - married/living with partner, c - widowed/divorced/separated
  2. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation and compared using the t-test
  3. Categorical variables are presented as n(%) and compared using the x2 test