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Table 3 Factors influencing cardiovascular prognosis in hypertensive patients

From: Highlights of the 2018 Chinese hypertension guidelines

Cardiovascular risk factorsTODConcomitant clinical diseases
Hypertension (Grade 1–3)
Man > 55 years
Woman > 65 years
Smoking or passive smoking
Impaired glucose tolerance (7.8–11.0 mmol/L for 2-h blood glucose) and/or impaired fasting glucose (6.1–6.9 mmol/L)
Dyslipidemia TC ≥ 5.2 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) or LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) or HDL-C < 1.0 mmol/L (40 mg/dL)
Family history of early onset cardiovascular disease (onset of first-degree relatives at age < 50 years)
Abdominal obesity (waist circumference: Man ≥90 cm, Woman ≥85 cm) or obesity (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2)
Hyperhomocysteinemia (> = 15umol/L)
Left ventricular hypertrophy electrocardiogram: Sokolow-Lyon voltage > 3.8 mV or Cornell product > 244 mV·ms Echocardiogram: LVMI (man ≥115 g/m2 woman ≥95 g/m2)
Carotid ultrasonography (IMT ≥ 0.9 mm) or atherosclerotic plaque
Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ≥ 12 m/s (*optional)
Ankle/Brachial index < 0.9 (*optional)
Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 30–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2) or slight increase in serum creatinine: Man 115–133 mol/L (1. 3–1. 5 mg/dL), Woman 107–124 mol/L (1.2–1.4 mg/dL)
Microalbuminuria: 30–300 mg/24 h or albumin/creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g (3.5 mg/mmol)
Cerebrovascular disease Cerebral hemorrhage Ischemic stroke Transient ischemic attack
Heart disease History of myocardial infarction Angina pectoris Coronary revascularization Congestive heart failure Atrial fibrillation
Renal disease: Diabetic nephropathy Renal dysfunction Including eGFR < 30 mL/min*1.73 m2; elevated serum creatinine: man ≥133 umol/L (1.5 mg/dL), woman ≥124 umol/L (1.4 mg/dL); proteinuria: (≥ 300 mg/24 h)
Peripheral vascular disease
Advanced retinopathy: Hemorrhages or exudates Papilloedema
Diabetes mellitus Newly diagnosed: Fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL); postprandial blood glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) Treated but not controlled: Glycated hemoglobin: (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5%
  1. BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein, IMT intima media thickness, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein; LVMI left ventricular mass index, TC total cholesterol, TOD Target organ damage.