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Table 5 Cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical organ damage

From: 2018 Korean Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of hypertension: part II-diagnosis and treatment of hypertension

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease
• Age (men ≥45 years old, female ≥55 years old)a
• Smoking
• Obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) or abdominal obesity (waist circumference men > 90 cm, women > 85 cm)
• Dyslipidemia [total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol ≥150 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol < 40 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥200 mg/dL]
• Pre-diabetes [impaired fasting glucose (100 ≤ fasting blood glucose < 126 mg/dL) or impaired glucose tolerance]
• Family history of premature cardiovascular disease (men < 55 years, women < 65 years)
• Diabetes mellitus [fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL, postprandial 2-h glucose (oral glucose tolerance test) ≥200 mg/dL, or hemoglobin A1C ≥6.5%]
Subclinical organ damage
• Brain – periventricular white matter hyperintensity (PWMH), microbleeds, asymptomatic cerebral infarction
• Heart – left ventricular hypertrophy, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart failure,
• Kidney – albuminuria, decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2, chronic kidney disease)
• Blood vessels – atherosclerotic plaque, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity > 10 m/sec, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity > 18 m/sec, coronary calcification.
• Retina - stage 3 or 4 hypertensive retinopathy
Clinical cardiovascular or renal diseases
• Brain – Stroke, transient ischemic attack, vascular dementia
• Heart – angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation
• Kidney – chronic kidney disease stage 3, 4, or 5.
• Blood vessels – aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, peripheral vascular diseases
  1. aAge ≥ 65 regarded as 2 risk factors