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Table 8 Cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical organ damages

From: 2013 Korean Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of hypertension: part I–epidemiology and diagnosis of hypertension

Category Criteria
Risk factor for cardiovascular disease Age (men ≥ 45 years old, female ≥ 55 years old)
Smoking
  Obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) or abdominal obesity (waist circumference male > 90 cm, women > 80 cm) [41]
  Dyslipidemia (total cholesterol ≥ 220 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 150 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 40 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥ 200 mg/dL)
  Impaired fasting glucose (100 ≤ fasting blood glucose < 126 mg/dL) or impaired glucose tolerance
  A family history of premature cardiovascular disease (men < 55 years old, women < 65 years old)
  Diabetes mellitus (fasting blood glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, postprandial 2-h glucose (oral glucose tolerance test) ≥ 200 mg/day, or hemoglobin A1C ≥ 6.5%)
Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular disease Brain: cerebrovascular accident, transient cerebral ischemia, vascular dementia
Heart: left ventricular hypertrophy, angina pectoris, myocardial
  infarction, heart failure
  Kidney: microalbuminuria (range, 30 to 299 mg/day), overt proteinuria (≥300 mg/day), estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, chronic kidney disease
  Blood vessel: atherosclerosis, aortic disease, peripheral vascular disease (ankle-brachial blood pressure index < 0.9), carotid intima-media thickness ≥ 1.0 mm, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity > 10 m/s
  Retina: stage 3 or 4 hypertensive retinopathy